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The E-Sylum:  Volume 4, Number 8, February 18, 2001, Article 6

MANILLAS - WEST AFRICAN BRACELET MONEY 

   Bob Leonard writes: "One point not made by Ben Keele in his 
   excellent article--probably because it  wasn't discussed in the 
   sources he consulted--is that the Biafran circulating coins (but 
   not the banknotes) plainly depict a manilla, the former bracelet 
   money of this part of Nigeria, on the side with the palm tree. 
   The shape is similar to that of the Onoudu pattern, though not 
   exact (it is a little too open).  Onoudu (onadoo) manillas were 
   made circa 1825-1875, and apparently circulated as late as the 
   mid-1920's.  All remaining manillas were demonetized and 
   withdrawn by the British in 1948 and 1949--only 20 years 
   before the Biafran coinage of 1969.  (See Sven-Olof Johansson, 
   Nigerian Currencies, and my 1998 article, "Manillas -- Money 
   of West Africa,"  for more information.)" 

   [Editor's note: the Johanasson book was reviewed in the 
    April 1968 issue of The Numismatist (p455);  According to 
    Leonard, his article  "was in the Chicago International Coin 
    Fair giveaway of the Chicago Coin Club that year, and I 
    haven't submitted it to anyone else for reprinting yet.  I 
    could of course send a copy to anyone interested.  The 
    Chicago Coin Club is out of the giveaways."   Mr. Leonard 
    may be reached via email at this address: 
    RLWinnetka@aol.com] 

  Wayne Homren, Editor

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