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About Us

The Numismatic Bibliomania Society is a non-profit association devoted to the study and enjoyment of numismatic literature. For more information please see our web site at


Those wishing to become new E-Sylum subscribers (or wishing to Unsubscribe) can go to the following web page link


There is a membership application available on the web site Membership Application

To join, print the application and return it with your check to the address printed on the application. Print/Digital membership is $40 to addresses in the U.S., and $60 elsewhere. A digital-only membership is available for $25. For those without web access, write to:

Jeff Dickerson, Treasurer
Numismatic Bibliomania Society
P. O. Box 578,
Weatherford, TX 76086


For Asylum mailing address changes and other membership questions, contact Jeff at this email address:


To submit items for publication in The E-Sylum, write to the Editor at this address:



Content presented in The E-Sylum is not necessarily researched or independently fact-checked, and views expressed do not necessarily represent those of the Numismatic Bibliomania Society.


Wayne Homren 2017-03-15 full Thank you for reading The E-Sylum. If you enjoy it, please send me the email addresses of friends you think may enjoy it as well and I'll send them a subscription. Contact me at anytime regarding your subscription, or questions, comments or suggestions about our content.

This week we open with BCD sale numismatic literature highlights, five new books, a conference, one obituary, updates from the Newman Numismatic Portal, and more.

Other topics this week include the Lviv Museum collection, Ireland banknotes, collecting Bust Half Dollars, the maker of the U.S. Mint's first pantograph, fantasy bank bags, medallic paperweights, commemorative coin legislation, the Washington Before Boston medal, Greenbacks, and anti-Truman satirical notes.

To learn more about the Numismatic Chronicle, Savings Certificates used in India, the Britannia Nummaria conference, researcher Joe Cribb, dealer Ira S. Stein, collector William Sumner Appleton, the 2024 Newman Grants, streetcar tokens, the Anti-Counterfeiting Educational Foundation, the 1933 Chicago Illinois Worlds Fair Jewish Day, coins of the Gallic Emperors, and reassembling shredded banknotes, read on. Have a great week, everyone!

Wayne Homren
Editor, The E-Sylum

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Here are some additional highlights of the Kolbe & Fanning sale of the BCD Library. -Editor

BCD sale catalog cover BCD Library Sale Highlights

The initial sale of material from the extraordinary BCD Library on the coinage of antiquity will be held by Kolbe & Fanning Numismatic Booksellers on Saturday, February 17. The BCD Library was formed over the course of half a century, and this is reflected by both the breadth and depth of its holdings, most particularly those pertaining to ancient Greek coinage. This first auction, which can be accessed at, primarily focuses on published collections, general works, periodicals, and landmark publications.

Some highlights include:

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Read more here

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A new book catalogues the collection of ancient coins in Lviv Historical Museum. -Editor

Ancient Coins in Lviv Museum book cover The Collection of Ancient Coins in Lviv Historical Museum
ed. by A. Degler

Lviv Historical Museum
Wroclaw, Lviv, Paris 2023
ISBN: 978-83-950094-5-7
Description: hardback, 441 pp. (29,5x22,5cm), plates
Condition: new
Weight: 1455g.

Work on this book, which began in 2017, continued beyond February 24, 2022. The color of the cover and the choice of the coin on it emphasize that cultural heritage unites societies and nations in their pursuit of freedom. Polish-Ukrainian ties, tightened in the spring of 2022, will surely bring many joint scientific initiatives in the future. We hope this book will follow this trend. The assemblage of ancient coins in Lviv Historical Museum is published for the first time in its entirety thanks to the cooperation between Lviv Historical Museum and August Bielowski Scientific Society.

Read more here


Ted Banning alerted me to the new festschrift for Joe Cribb. Thank you! -Editor

Wang and Bracey cover.indd Look at the Coins! Papers in Honour of Joe Cribb on his 75th Birthday
Edited by Helen Wang, Robert Bracey

Includes PDF

PDF eBook
(personal use)

PDF eBook
(institutional use)

The twenty-four contributions in Look at the Coins! reflect the vast scope of Joe Cribb's interests, including Asian numismatics, museology, poetry and art. The papers are arranged geographically, then chronologically or thematically.

Read more here

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A new chapter of The Banknote Book has been published by Whitman-CDN. Written by Mark Irwin and Owen Linzmayer, the 165-page catalog covers 7,095 varieties of notes from all six national issuers in Ireland from 1783 to 1928. -Editor

  Banknote Book Ireland cover

Read more here


There's a new 2024 edition of the MRI Bankers' Guide to Foreign Currency. -Editor

2024 MRI BANKER'S GUIDE TO FOREIGN CURRENCY book cover The MRI Bankers' Guide to Foreign Currency

Since its first issue – published in 1990 – central and commercial banks, exchange bureaus, libraries, universities, coin dealers, travel agents, financial printers, banknote equipment makers, currency logistics and those involved in international trade rely on MRI BANKERS' GUIDE TO FOREIGN CURRENCY™ to find which currencies are used anywhere in the world, which banknotes are current, new issues and recalls, and virtually everything else they need to know about foreign currency.

Read more here

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India Savings Certificates book cover Anil Bohora writes:

"I have just finished compiling "Catalog of Savings Certificates Used in India".

"The catalog is always a work in progress and I appreciate any feedback, comments, corrections, additional information, interesting scans that readers can provide. You can contact me via email at"

Read more here

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Lee Toone is organizing a conference in York, UK focusing on Romano-British numismatics and the release of three new numismatic books on the topic. -Editor

The Britannia Nummaria 2024 numismatic conference will be held on Thursday 18th July 2024 in the main hall at The Guildhall, St Helen's Square in central York. A wonderful medieval riverside location. The bi-annual York Coin Fair takes place at York Racecourse on the following two days. The conference programme and registration will be available in January 2024. A precursor to this event was Moneta Britannnia 2011 and the website for this conference is still available here: .

Read more here

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IRA S. STEIN (1940 - 2023)

Pete Smith alerted me to the passing of dealer Ira Stein, "a familiar face on the show circuit". Thanks. -Editor

Ira Stein Ira S. Stein
Born: 3/14/1940
Died: 7/30/2023

Ira is a 1963 graduate of Rochester Institute of Technology, with a degree in photography. Over the course of his life he had many different careers. He began his entrepreneurial endeavors when he formed his own company, Starlight Studios, while still in high school. He traveled Long Island taking baby pictures for new parents Later, after graduating from RIT, he began a career as a chemist with Xerox Corporation. He quickly realized that life in the lab was not for him, and decided to pursue a career in real estate sales. He found success on this path and ultimately owned his own real estate company. After many years in real estate, he decided to turn his childhood passion for collecting coins into a third career. Ira bought and sold rare coins on the internet, and traveled the country in pursuit of inventory. In this final career, Ira found the perfect opportunity to use his skills as a photographer, salesman, and master of technology.

Ira was a lifetime member of the American Numismatic Association, and a member of the Rochester Numismatic Association since 1987. He also served as the 86th president of that club in 1998. His knowledge and helpful nature were appreciated by club members, and he was a mentor to new collectors.

Ira was a survivor of several different types of cancer, and he would offer to talk with newly diagnosed individuals. His fighting spirit and ability to overcome the odds offered hope and inspiration to many.

Read more here

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Applications are being accepted for the 2024 Newman Grants from the Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society. Here's the press release. Previous recipients have made excellent contributions to numismatic research. What great project do YOU have in mind? -Editor

Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society Invites Applications for Newman Grants

EPNNES logo The Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society (EPNNES) announces the opening of the application period for the 2024 Newman Grant program. Newman Grants are designed to financially assist numismatic authors and organizations pursuing original research in American numismatics. This program was launched in 2019 and supports research projects related to colonial numismatics, U.S. federal coinage, counterfeit detection, and other areas.

Authors, researchers, and numismatic organizations are encouraged to apply for amounts between $1,000 and $5,000. Awards may be applied toward related research costs including but not limited to photography, reproduction of research material and graphic art services, database access fees, and travel. Electronic publications will be preferred as EPNNES wishes to direct funds toward expenses specifically related to numismatic research, rather than the print publication of research. Newman Grant awardees agree to non-exclusive publication of their research on the Newman Numismatic Portal ( EPNNES intends to make approximately half a dozen grants in 2024.

Read more here


The David Lisot Video Library on the Newman Numismatic Portal can be found at:

We highlight one of his videos each week in The E-Sylum. Here's one from 1995 about Bust Half Collecting, with three great talks in one program. -Editor

Bust Half Collecting for the Serious Collector

This literal pantheon of top numismatists discusses the more esoteric aspects of collecting Bust half dollars covering such topics as, Bust Half Dollar Die State Studies, Multi-Struck Bust Halves, and Pictorial Attribution Technique of Bust Halves. Brad Karoleff discusses new areas of investigation for Bust half die marriages and explains the value of a good reference library. David Finkelstein talks about the hair curls on the coins of 1812 in die emission sequence and what other information can be determined. Glenn Peterson gives a quiz on die varieties using examples of the most prominent and desirable coins. He explains why Overton is not always the best source for identification. This tape is a must for any advanced collector. Lecture with slides.

Read more here

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Young numismatists are invited to apply for Professional Numismatists Guild scholarships to the 2024 ANA Summer Seminar. -Editor

PNG logo The Professional Numismatists Guild ( again will provide a scholarship to a deserving young numismatist (YN) to attend one of the four-day sessions of the American Numismatic Association ( 2024 Summer Seminar in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

We are delighted to continue our long tradition of providing a YN scholarship for the popular, annual ANA educational programs. The PNG scholarship will cover airfare, tuition for one of the two 2024 Summer Seminar sessions, meals, and dormitory accommodations on the campus of Colorado College, adjacent to the ANA headquarters, said PNG Executive Director John Feigenbaum.

All young numismatists between the ages of 13 and 22 are eligible to enter and are cordially invited to apply for the scholarship, but time is short. Entrants must submit a short essay outlining why they should be chosen as this year's scholarship recipient. The deadline for receipt of the entries is Friday, March 29, 2024, explained Feigenbaum.

Read more here

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Julia Casey researched a detail mentioned in last week's article on pantographs, the machine used to reduce artist designs for making coins. -Editor

  contamin pantograph reduction machine
Contamin Pantograph

The Identity of Contamin, maker of the U.S. Mint's Portrait Lathe

In last week's E-Sylum, Contamin is mentioned as a maker of a pantograph engraving machine obtained from France and used by the US Mint in the 1830s. Contamin's first name and other details about him are indicated to be unknown. I decided to see if I could determine more information about Contamin. I did some digging and then independently came up with the same possibility, which David Powell wrote about in the March 22, 2020, E-Sylum - perhaps Contamin is Vincent Contamin, and this Contamin was the individual who later invented and sold piano chairs.

Read more here

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Tom Caldwell's Work as a Mentor
Tom Caldwell Northeast Numismatics 2019-03 Whitman Coin Expo James Ricks of Atlas Numismatics writes:

"I wanted to mention how important Tom Caldwell's work as a mentor has been to many apprentice and advanced numismatists-- I started working for Tom at 13 and continued for several decades. He is a generous and kind teacher but not without a sharp quip when he observes foolishness or confusion; Tom doesn't drink coffee but I suggest you have some before debating him!

Other numismatists who have worked with Tom include: Tom Culhane of The Elusive Spondulix (very sadly deceased); Jeff Kierstead (Jeff Kierstead Rare Coins); Tom's brother-in-law Barry McCarthy; Lano Balolescu; probably many more I have forgotten."

To read the earlier E-Sylum articles, see:

Other topics this week include Peter Mitchell, Rex Stark, and specialty Dansco albums. -Editor

Read more here

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In the January 22, 2024 issue of the Journal of the Old Bag Collectors Club, Editor Pete Smith discusses fantasy bank bags for sale on eBay. -Editor

  Fantasy Bags for Sale

Fake bank bag carson city mint As an indication of the popularity of bag collecting, promoters have started to produce fantasy bags for sale on eBay. Shown on this page are bags for the Carson City Mint, Bank of Tombstone, Arizona, and Bank of Virginia City.

The seller claims, These are Printed on Authentic Bank Money Bags 9" wide and 17" tall and are made of Natural Heavy Duty Canvas with Tie Straps. What does it mean that they are printed on Authentic Bank Money Bags? It means they bought the same unprinted canvas bags that anyone can buy from various vendors. These are fantasy designs meaning they have not reproduced actual designs used by these banks.

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Here's another entry from Dick Johnson's Encyclopedia of Coin and Medal Terminology. -Editor

Paperweight. A medallic item intended for use on desktops to hold down paper. Usually fairly heavy in weight and large size, metal paperweights sometimes have half-ball or square feet (2 to 4) on the reverse. Or, if no feet, paperweights often have a felt backing. Often medallic paperweights are uniface, and if they are unusual shape they do not have sharp corners (and often have rounded edges). A large paperweight – always a medallion – is called a letterweight. Since any large medallic item could be used to hold down papers, a paperweight is usually not designated as such unless intended in some way. Thus the reverse feet or felt backing are often the only characteristic of a purely paperweight item. See half ball feet.

Read more here

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E-Sylum Feature Writer and American Numismatic Biographies author Pete Smith submitted this article on Boston numismatist William Sumner Appleton. Thank you. -Editor

  William Sumner Appleton (1840-1903)

Last week I read a book; this week I read a periodical. The item was Memoir of William Sumner Appleton, A.M. by Charles C. Smith in Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Volume XXXVII, Oct. 1903, pages 516-527. Here are some excerpts:

Read more here

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Local news publications are great sources for additional background on coin designs and artists. Here's a story about the photographer behind the snowflake on a new Canadian coin. -Editor

photographer Don Komarechka What's more Canadian than a snowflake?

Don Komarechka reflects that sentiment as an artist on the new $20 Canadian coin, which is as unique as a snowflake.

The pure silver hexagon coin with crystal features the former Barrie resident's stellar dendrite (tree-like) snowflake on one side, and the effigy of Queen Elizabeth II, by Susanna Blunt, on the other.

I think that seeing a snowflake … those times you look out on the yard or the lake and you can see it's glistening, it's sparkling a little bit … to know that every one of those little sparkles is something as unbelievably beautiful as what is on that coin, Komarechka said.

It's the Royal Canadian Mint's first hexagon coin and features a sparkling snow crystal.

Komarechka — who now lives in Bulgaria with his wife, Desislava, and their seven-year-old daughter, Danika — bills himself as a nature, macro and landscape photographer.

His snowflakes have graced two other Canadian coins, one issued in 2017 and the other in 2018.

Read more here


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This press release announces new leadership at the Anti-Counterfeiting Educational Foundation. -Editor

  ACEF logo

Anti-Counterfeiting Educational Foundation elects new leaders

A new board of directors comprised of well-known and respected leaders in the numismatic community has been elected to guide the non-profit Anti-Counterfeiting Educational Foundation, Inc.

John Albanese is the new president. Officers serving with him include Barry Stuppler, vice president; Beth Deisher, secretary; and Ian Russell, treasurer. Also serving as directors are Don Bonser, John Dannreuther, Steve Ivy, David McCarthy, Mary Sauvain, Ute Wartenberg Kagan, Fred Weinberg, Reid Wolf, and Jack Young.

Read more here

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In the shameless-random-piggyback-publicity-seeking-press-release department, here's a proposal from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals to replace everyone's favorite weather-prognosticating Groundhog with a coin toss. -Editor

  PETA Punxsutawney Phil coin

PETA is offering to send a giant gold coin to replace Punxsutawney Phil.

The animal rights organization wrote a letter to The Punxsutawney Groundhog Club's president saying they'd send a giant coin in exchange for Phil's release to a reputable sanctuary.

Using multiple coin toss puns, PETA President Ingrid Newkirk points out in her letter that Phil's predictions are correct about 40% of the time, so flipping a coin would give a more accurate forecast.

Read more here

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As a Pittsburgh native and youthful Pirates baseball fan, I was glad to see that Hall of Famer Roberto Clemente is being considered as a commemorative coin subject. I'm old enough to have seen him play at Three Rivers Stadium before his untimely death in 1972. -Editor

Roberto Clemente Pittsburgh Pirates great Roberto Clemente may be honored on a commemorative coin if a measure currently before Congress is approved.

U.S. Rep. Adriano Espaillat, D-New York, joined local Reps. Chris Deluzio and Guy Reschenthaler in introducing legislation that would require the secretary of the treasury to mint commemorative coins honoring the legendary baseball star.

The Hall of Famer was described in the bill as a legend in life and death, a baseball star, a humanitarian activist, and a symbol of Latin American pride.

Roberto Clemente Jr. told TribLive news partner WTAE that Espaillat, the bill's primary sponsor, is a big fan of Clemente.

Read more here

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Here's a selection of interesting or unusual items I came across in the marketplace this week. Tell us what you think of some of these. -Editor

1797 Capped Bust Right Eagle

1797 Capped Bust Right Eagle obverse 1797 Capped Bust Right Eagle reverse

The mintage for the 1797 Small Eagle provided in most numismatic references is 3,615 coins, based on Walter Breen's 1988 assertion that the 3,615 eagles delivered from March 25 through May 2, 1797, were of this issue. Based on a more exhaustive study of die states, emission sequences, and coins extant, John W. Dannreuther provides an estimated mintage of 1,250 to 3,615 coins for the 1797 Small Eagle in his 2006 early gold coin reference. The 1797 is the scarcest date in the Capped Bust Right, Small Eagle ten-dollar gold series of 1795 to 1797. At least one 1796 is known to have been struck after all known 1797 Small Eagle coins, a conclusion based on the presence of a reverse die crack from the border through the right side of the letter O in OF to the wreath. Whether a remarriage for the 1797 Small Eagle is also known is pending discovery of an example of this date with that reverse die crack. Sure to be a highlight of a highly regarded numismatic cabinet, this piece comes highly recommended.

A fixed price offering from Stack's Bowers. Nice coin. -Editor

To read the complete item description, see:
1797 Capped Bust Right Eagle. Small Eagle. BD-1, Taraszka-7. Rarity-5. AU-58 (PCGS). (

Other topics this week include a $50 Virginia Treasury Note, the 1933 George V 'Wreath' Crown, and the 1933 Chicago Worlds Fair Jewish Day Token. -Editor

Read more here

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In my Diary last week I mentioned getting a preview of Mike Markowitz' upcoming article for CoinWeek on coins of the Gallic Emperors. It's been published, and here's an excerpt. See the complete article online for more. -Editor

FOR FOURTEEN YEARS during the late third century (260 – 274 CE), the western provinces of the Roman Empire maintained a separate state independent of Rome. Rulers of this so-called Gallic Empire issued coinage that was often of better metal and workmanship than Rome was producing.

In the Spring of 260, the Sassanian Persian ruler Shapur I disastrously defeated the Roman emperor Valerian in battle. When this news reached the legions on the Rhine frontier, they proclaimed Postumus, the military governor of the German provinces, as emperor, in opposition to Valerian's son, Gallienus.

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This new Stack's Bowers Coin Resource Center entry discusses the famous Washington Before Boston medal. Here are two excerpts - the first describes the valiant efforts of Washington's engineer (and professional bookseller) Henry Knox. -Editor

  betts-542-washington-before-boston-silver-medal obverse betts-542-washington-before-boston-silver-medal reverse

Fort Ticonderoga, on the west bank of Lake Champlain, was taken by American forces under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold in May 1775. Once Washington began assembling his plans to push the British out of Boston, it became evident that the 59 British cannons captured at Ticonderoga represented the nearest American-held artillery - and those cannons were 300 miles away.

Fortunately, Washington's army included an amateur engineer (and professional bookseller) from Boston named Henry Knox, who had familiarized himself with fortifications and cannon during the early days of the campaign. Knox, just 25 years old, impressed Washington enough that the General gave Knox command of an expedition to deliver the guns of Ticonderoga to Boston. Knox left on November 17, 1775, and arrived at Fort Ticonderoga on December 5. The winter weather was brutal on Washington's troops, but welcome beneath the oxen hooves and the sleighs that Knox used to carry 60 tons of iron eastward. Knox took the guns south to Albany, then east to Boston, arriving in Cambridge on January 27, 1776.

The cannon were not originally intended for Dorchester Heights, a high ground that looked down on Boston from the south, but that's where they ended up - and they ended up there all in one night. Under cover of darkness, with the view somewhat blocked by hay bales and other temporary fortifications, Washington's men humped the big guns to the top of the Heights. On the morning of March 5, the British forces awoke to an unimaginable sight: the high ground fortified, the guns of Ticonderoga looming, and their own position under grave threat. Washington had overseen the seemingly impossible, and made the dug-in occupation of the British in Boston indefensible. The British commander on the scene, General William Howe, is supposed to have said "My God, these fellows have done more work in one night than I could make my army do in three months."

When the British artillery erupted on the night of March 9, it was clear to all present that the noisy cannonade was a cover for evacuation. It took ten days for the entire occupation force to leave. After they left, it took Congress less than a week to vote to award their very first ever medal to the man who oversaw the bloodless triumph that saved Boston.

By rights, this medal could just as easily depict the stout Henry Knox, whose image is measurably less easy on the eyes than Antoine Houdon's elegant bust of the godlike Washington. While Washington conceived the plan for the siege of Boston, only Knox's dashing-through-the-snow derring-do enabled the Commander-in-Chief to push Howe's army out to sea.

Read more here

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It's pretty safe to say all numismatists dream of making that flea market find of a lifetime. How about a gold Nobel Prize medal on eBay? Also pretty safe to assume it's probably fake. Here's a listing I came across this week. -Editor

  reproduction gold Nobel Prize Medal obverse reproduction gold Nobel Prize Medal reverse

The Nobel Prize Medal in Physiology or Medicine RARE USA Swedish With Case
good gift for a young doctor

Weight : 1Oz, Size : 40mm, Base Material : Bronze.Gold Content : Heavily Gold Layered.Thickness : 3mm.The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962 was awarded jointly to Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material."

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Pablo Hoffman passed along this Delancey Place blog excerpt from the book Ways and Means by Roger Lowenstein. Thanks! -Editor

Ways and Means book cover In one of the most momentous developments of the Civil War, the U.S. -- which had not had a national currency of any type to that point -- elected to begin printing currency. It was a highly contested decision, and yet that currency, which came to be called greenbacks, was a key early part of the successful financing of that war:

"In the desperate winter of 1861-1862, the financial crisis threatened to halt the Union armies. The Treasury was empty; the banks had suspended; the government had no currency. Chase had few ideas, other than a labored program for bank reform. Almost by default, the Republican Congress seized the initiative. The most likely vehicle for financial resuscitation was the House Ways and Means Committee. Ways and Means had two subcommittees. One dealt with revenue, but revenue legislation was unlikely to provide help in the near term. The other subcommittee, on currency, was chaired by Elbridge Spaulding of New York State. Spaulding had been working on Chase's proposal to reform the banks, but when the banks went off gold, Spauld­ing realized there would not be time. He himself was an investor and director in Bank of Attica and the Farmers and Mechanics' Bank, both in Buffalo. In the 1860s, it was not uncommon for representatives to tailor legislation affecting personal investments. Spaulding, who had been a popular Whig mayor before running for Congress, was untrou­bled by any idea of conflict of interest. He simply reckoned that the banking channel was stuck and it was in the public interest -- also in his private interest -- to unstick it. On December 30, 1861, with the Union nearly overwhelmed by fiscal problems, Spaulding reported another bill -- for a government currency.

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A Society of Paper Money Collectors blog article by Loren Gatch about satirical banknotes relating to President Harry Truman. The article also goes on to discuss Eisenhower "Donkey Dollars." Here's an excerpt - see the complete article online. -Editor

Of the three pieces of scrip, the Truman Dollar is the most enigmatic note. The front features a rather ungainly building that may be a rendering of the proposed Truman presidential library. Despite featuring the denomination 100, the note is labeled Good for One Red Herring, a reference to Truman's dismissive reaction, in 1948, to the House Un-American Activities Committee investigation into communist influence in the government, which he termed a red herring meant to distract the American public from congressional inaction on the President's domestic priorities. Above that are the words, Made for Womans [sic] Brigade for Eisenhower.

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Well, not exactly. But it's a great idea and can certainly help. -Editor

  Reconstructing Bank of England Five Pound Note

The fate of old notes is a critical issue for central banks that oversee their disposal. These notes cannot be thrown away like ordinary rubbish. Instead, central banks have developed standards to ensure the disposal is safe and secure.

This often involves a type of shredding that slices each note into hundreds of tiny pieces, each typically smaller than about thirty square millimeters. The shredded paper, or increasingly plastic, can then be disposed of, or recycled, off site.

Some central banks have even taken to selling shredded banknotes as souvenirs. And this raises the question of whether it is possible to reassemble the notes and reclaim them at face value.

Read more here

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